Edible mushroom breeding training


The best time to grow mushrooms at home is between October and December, but if the air conditioning and temperature conditions of the place are balanced the mushrooms can be extended to other months of the year. Generally it is a fungus cultivated in its own right and can be grown in dark environments and tolerates any amount of light except direct sunlight. However, in the mushroom growing area, in addition to having good air conditioning, the ambient air temperature should also be maintained between 10 and 15 degrees. In addition, the breeding site must be thoroughly cleaned, washable and free of harmful bacteria, insects and fungi.




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Mushroom room

The width of the breeding room should be large enough to allow for easy passage through the corridors. (Approx. 70cm) The width of the fungus is also 180 cm, allowing access to the bottom of the fungus from both sides, and if the fungus is next to the wall, it is 90 cm wide. Mushrooms can also be grown in wooden boxes 60 by 90 cm in depth and 20 to 25 cm in depth. Classifications are usually done throughout the breeding room.


There should be no floor on the floor, the minimum distance between the first floor and the floor is 15 cm and the distance of each floor is 60 cm. Normally, there are only three storeys to grow a mushroom at home, and if the room is large enough, place one row across the room adjacent to the wall and one (two-sided) floor in the middle and one floor to the other so that two The hallway is 70 cm wide on both sides of the middle floor, 180 cm.

How to prepare fertilizer

If the fungus cultivation site is small and small, the amount of fertilizer required is proportional. Therefore, it is preferable to construct a 1.5 m concrete enclosure and adjacent to the site to allow for excess fertilizer effluent to be drained into the bucket or a small 40 cm concrete tank. The bottom of the main reservoir is 15cm in thickness, and on the surface of the straw is a 1m thick wire mesh box with 0.5cm grid holes 25cm from each side of the concrete tank wall. It filled the mesh with straw and added fertilizer inside the mesh.




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Providing a substrate for the cultivation of mushrooms

The best material for growing mushrooms is horseradish and straw. To prepare the fertilizer for growing mushrooms, mix some horseradish and straw and store them in appropriate dimensions about 3 meters and crush them well. To condense so as to prevent the penetration of rain into it. After a short time, the fermentation process begins within the fertilizer pile and the ambient temperature rises. You can also add some lime about a fifth of the volume before mixing it thoroughly and mix thoroughly. Then he massaged it.


This will delay the fermentation process, at the same time absorbing the produced ammonia and in addition absorbing some additional moisture from the fertilizer. After three days, again mass this leaf and air and stack it like it was the first time. Tilt the surface so that the rainwater does not penetrate it, and this should be repeated four to six times over 2 to 4 days. It should be noted that if the lime was given to the fertilizer in the first stage, the four-day fertilizer turnaround interval would be two days if the lime was not given.


It should be noted that care must be taken to maintain moisture and heat within the mass. As the moisture content is high, the environment inside the fertilizer becomes acidified and the fertilizer becomes unusable. Particularly when turning the fertilizer, if the fertilizer is found to be very dry, a small amount of water mist should be sprayed. One of the characteristic symptoms of moisture content of the fertilizer is its testing. It just sticks to the palm of your hand because of the pressure on the fertilizer. After preparation, the breeding room should be equipped.

How to plant mushrooms in the breeding room

Once the fertilizer has been prepared, transfer it to the salon and spread the fertilizer on the surface of each row 15 cm thick and make the surface completely flat, and this should be done very quickly without losing heat. Once completed, close all doors and pores and allow the fertilizer to rise for four days to raise the temperature of the fertilizer and the room environment to about 54 to 60 degrees and keep this temperature constant for 30-48 hours. , Then the fertilizer temperature drops to 54 degrees.


This is called sweating in the environment. In fact, much of the environment is disinfected by high heat and insect larvae and so on. From then on, the ambient temperature of the substrate will be lowered to 10-12 degrees C for 5 days until the temperature reaches 23-24 degrees. This temperature will be suitable for planting mushrooms.




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Spray ready for planting

Mushroom spray cannot be planted directly because there may be many toxic fungi associated with fungal spray. Therefore, you should use a ready-to-plant spray called sponge, which is grown in a completely sterile, sheltered and selective environment and brought to sleep. The way it works is that the fungus sprays are grown in a sterile laboratory environment before the fungal mycelium begins to grow. They are then sterilized and prevented from growing further and sold in a completely sterile, protected environment called the mushroom spoon.

How to plant a spoon

Open a piece of sponge that is kept in a sterile, closed environment and divide it into twelve small pieces, and then dip the surface of the bed soil 25 cm in, and mark the piece of wood in the bed soil. At each hole, remove part of the soil to a depth of 5 cm with a device and place a piece of spoon in its left hand and cover it. So that the planting depth is 3 - 5 cm from the soil surface and so they go on to plant the whole bed.

Cover the substrate surface

Ten to fourteen days after the date of planting, the cultivation area should be covered by a two-centimeter layer of sterile, hollow, porous soil and completely flat. At this time the bed temperature should be 15.5 degrees. It should be noted that by the time the substrate is coated, the spoons must have begun to grow and the fungal mycelium grow and expand around the area where the spawn was planted. At this time, the pleasant smell of mushrooms reaches the area and the bed.


At this time, care must be taken to ensure that the substrate is not shaken or moved, especially if the floor boards and floors are abnormal, or if the soil does not have the ability to hold soil, the fungal mycelium is torn and the crop is destroyed. After covering the substrate, the mycelium began to grow rapidly, and to accelerate the growth of the mycelium, the ambient temperature should be between 14 and 14 ° C. If the ambient temperature is too high, it is not appropriate to apply lime to the soil mixture.




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Conditions for growing and growing mushrooms


Ventilation in the culture room should be uniform and should not be excessive on the cultivation surface and ventilation should be uniform throughout the room.


If the substrate temperature drops below 14 degrees Celsius and the ambient temperature reaches about 7 degrees Celsius , cover the bed with a thick cloth to prevent heat exchange to the environment. The growth rate of the fungus can be raised to 14.5 degrees Fahrenheit and can increase ventilation, but be careful not to move the air to the fungus surface.

Air humidity and irrigation

When the mushroom is formed, the room needs moisture. On average, the best moisture content for cultivation is between 70-80% . If the humidity level drops below this level, the warhead surface will be cracked or the warhead surface will become stained. In addition, the substrate surface is dried and needs more irrigation. To reduce the amount of air humidity, it is necessary to install moisture gauges at various points in the room and regularly visit them. Irrigation is required if the soil surface is dry. You should sprinkle with dust on the soil surface so that water does not flow to the bed surface or accumulate in one place. Water with pure water at a temperature of 32 degrees and be very careful.

Strengthen the substrate soil

Once the fungi are grown and harvested, they can be sprayed onto the surface of the liquid fertilizer bed, but care should be taken not to spray on the fungus cap.


As soon as the fungus has grown sufficiently and its crown has reached its full form, it must collect the ripe fungi and regularly cultivate, study, and collect the ripe fungi throughout the bed. Fungi that have been removed and the umbrella has been opened are not worth marketing. In addition, its weight is reduced, as well as lighter-cut fungi that are light-weight, second-class fungi and of less nutritional value.


Large baskets should not be used during collection. Because the fungus presses on the basket cause the bottom fungus to scratch and become black. To collect the fungus, it is enough to hold the cap and give it a screw to detach its base from the ground and immediately cut off the dirty, contaminated stem with a sharp knife. Kurdish. And put the clean mushroom in the basket and collect as much gloves as possible. Operation takes place every 15 days and lasts two to three months.


Transfer the chopped mushrooms to a cool, cold room and gradate them as soon as possible, removing stained, incomplete, tilted and unsightly mushrooms, dispensing them for powder purposes, and dispensing healthy mushrooms in first and second-rate packages. Market two.








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